How do we make tDCS more effective?
Galea – during visuomotor adaptation task, cerebellar tDCS leads to faster acquisition, while M1 stim leads to better retention. A clear double dissociation that highlights distinct roles of the two structures during motor learning.
Pope – subtraction vs addition dual tasks. Subtraction the harder task and tDCS was only effective during subtraction task. High difficulty might be needed for effective stimulation, maybe due to ability to compensate with other brain regions if not occupied by more demanding task…
Asynchronous stim (stimulation when not moving) works slightly better than synchronous stim (stimulation applied during movement), but both work (better than sham and even continuous).
ER-tDCS (event related tDCS) – early data suggests stim during high error trials leads to more learning than baseline. Flatline learning in stim during low error trials condition.
What’s the bridge between asynchronous stimulation and ER? Why might they have similar effects? The ER paradigm was adaptive so same amount stim occurred for high error as for low error .
Might be evidence for importance of error in learning – e.g. Palidis: during reward based learning and sensory-feedback based learning, P300 amplitude predicted size of error. Reminded me of this paper by Camilla Pierella – motor learning comes from errors and inputs.